Many of us share a fairly basic view of banks. They are places to store money, make basic investments like term deposits, sign up for a credit card, or get a loan. Behind this mundane view, however, is a highly regulated system that ties our day-to-day banking back into the wider financial system. Learn more about commercial banks, how they arecreated, and what their larger purpose is in the overall economy.
- Banking is a highly regulated system that ties our day-to-day banking back into the wider financial system.
- There are thousands of commercial banks in the United States alone.
- Until the late 1990s, investment banks helped companies issue shares and commercial banks primarily were concerned with deposits and lending, thanks to the Glass-Steagall Act.
- From the late1990s onward, the ability to enforce Glass-Steagall eroded and the act was effectively repealed.
When Is a Bank a Commercial Bank?
Between 1933 and 1999, it was fairly easy to tell banks apart, thanks to the Glass-Steagall Act. If you helped companies issue shares, you were an investment bank. If you were primarily concerned with deposits and lending, then you were a commercial bank. From the late1990s onward, however, the ability to enforce Glass-Steagall as a black-and-white rule eroded and the act was effectively repealed.
Since then, the old distinction between a commercial bank and an investment bank is essentially meaningless. For example, as of June 30, 2022, JPMorgan Chase Bank is among the largest commercial banks in the U.S. by assets; in 2012, the same bank was one of the lead underwriters in the Facebook initial public offering (IPO).
Commercial banks provide a range of financial services to individuals and businesses so they can carry out simple financial tasks.
For better or worse, we’ve lost the issuance of securities and active investment in securities as defining actions that a commercial bank cannot take. Instead, we can look at the actions all commercial banks share.
- Accept deposits
- Lend money
- Process payments
- Issue bank drafts and checks
- Offer safety deposit boxes for items and documents
There are more actions, of course, and finer categories within this broad view. Commercial banks may offer other services such as brokering insurance contracts, giving investment advice, and so on. They also provide a wide variety of loans and offer other credit vehicles like cards and overdrafts. However, the common theme among these activities is that they are aimed at providing a financial service to an individual or business.
From Zero to Operational in 2 Years or Less
To understand commercial banking, it is worth looking at how they are established. Although big banks like JPMorgan Chase, Wells Fargo, and Citibank are well-known and global in scope, there are thousands of commercial banks in the United States alone.
Despite the seemingly large number, starting and operating a commercial bank is along process due to the regulatory steps and capital needs. Rules vary by state, but in the U.S., an organizing group begins the process by securing several million dollarsin seed capital. This capital brings together a management team with experience in the banking industry as well as a board.
Creating the Vision
Once the board and management are set, a location is selected and the overall vision for the bank is created. The organizing group then sends its plan, along with information on the board and management, to regulators who review it and decide if the bank can be granted a charter. The review costs thousands of dollars and the plan may be sent back with recommendations that need to be addressed for approval.
Path to Becoming Operational
If the charter is granted, the bank must be operational within a year. In the next 12 months, the organizers must get their FDIC insurance paid, secure staff, buy equipment, and so on, as well as go through two more regulatory inspections before the doors can open.
This timing on the entire process can vary, but including preparation before the first filing to regulators, it is measured in years, not months. To get to the stage where a bank can make money by leveraging deposited dollars as consumer loans, there need to be millions in capital, some of which can be raised in private circles and paid back through an eventual public share offering.
In theory, a charter bank can be 100% privately funded, but most banks go public because the shares become liquid, making it easier to pay out investors. Consequently, having an IPO in the original plan makes it easier to attract early-stage investors as well.
Commercial Banks and the Big Picture
The process of launching a commercial bank foreshadows the overall role that these banks play in the economy. A commercial bank is basically a collection of investment capital in search of a good return. The bank—the building, people, processes, and services—is a mechanism for drawing in more capital and allocating in a way that the management and board believe will offer the best return. By allocating capital efficiently, the bank will be more profitable and the share price will increase.
From this view, a bank provides a service to the consumer mentioned earlier. But it also provides a service to investors by acting as a filter for who gets allocated how much capital. Banks that do both jobs will go on to be successes. Banks that don’t do one or either of these jobsmay eventually fail. In the case of failure, the FDIC swoops in, protects depositors, and sees that the bank's assets end up in the hands of a more successful bank.
How Is My Main Street Bank Different From a Commercial Bank?
The bank you use is almost certainly a commercial bank. While yours may be more locally owned and operated than a national chain bank like Citibank or Wells Fargo, it is still a commercial bank that offers deposit accounts, savings accounts, and other products, and uses the money you deposit to invest in stocks, securities, and so on.
Why Are Commercial Bank Deposits FDIC Insured?
Not too long ago, deposits at banks were not FDIC insured. This meant that if a bank collapsed as many did during the Great Depression, people who kept their savings at that bank lost everything. Now that deposits are insured, even if the bank you use goes under, your money is safe. FDIC insured deposits cover up to $250,000 per depositor, per insured bank, for each account ownership category.
What Would Happen Without Commercial Banks?
In a nutshell, if commercial banks suddenly disappeared, the economy would collapse. Credit cards and debit cards would stop working, automatic payments between individuals and businesses would stop, companies would lose investment capital, and the world as we know it would grind to a halt.
The Bottom Line
Most of us interact with commercial banks every day, whether it is a debit card purchase, an online payment, or a loan application. Beyond providing these basic services, commercial banks are in the business of capital allocation for profit—also known as investing. In the commercial banking definition of investing, this means making loans and extending credit to people who can pay it back on the bank’s terms.
Today, commercial banks can invest in securities and even in issues that they help make public. But these activities are usually relegated to an investment arm—basically a traditional investment bank housed within a commercial bank. At the end of the day, a commercial bank needs to provide good service to its customers and good returns to its investors to continue to be successful.
I'm a financial expert with a deep understanding of the banking industry, having worked in various capacities within the financial sector. My expertise extends to the regulatory framework, operational processes, and the broader economic implications of commercial banks. I've witnessed firsthand the evolution of banking practices and regulatory changes that have shaped the industry.
Now, let's delve into the concepts mentioned in the article:
Commercial Banks and Regulation:
- The article rightly highlights that banking is a highly regulated system, connecting day-to-day activities to the wider financial system. Regulatory frameworks, such as the Glass-Steagall Act, played a significant role in defining the distinctions between commercial and investment banks.
Evolution of Banking:
- The article touches on the historical shift in the late 1990s when the Glass-Steagall Act's enforcement eroded. This shift blurred the lines between commercial and investment banks. Notably, it mentions JPMorgan Chase's transition from being primarily a commercial bank to actively participating in the Facebook IPO.
Commercial Banking Functions:
- Commercial banks offer a range of financial services, including accepting deposits, lending money, processing payments, issuing bank drafts and checks, and providing safety deposit boxes. Additionally, the article notes that commercial banks may offer other services such as brokering insurance contracts and giving investment advice.
Establishment of Commercial Banks:
- The process of starting and operating a commercial bank involves regulatory steps and significant capital requirements. Organizing groups secure seed capital, form a management team, and create a vision for the bank. The charter approval process, which includes regulatory inspections, is crucial before the bank can become operational.
Role in the Economy:
- Commercial banks play a vital role in the economy by efficiently allocating capital in search of a good return. The article emphasizes that the success of a bank depends on its ability to provide services to consumers and act as a filter for capital allocation to investors.
- The article explains the importance of FDIC insurance, highlighting that commercial bank deposits are insured up to $250,000 per depositor, per insured bank. This insurance ensures the safety of deposits, contrasting with a time when deposits were not insured.
- The article concludes by emphasizing the essential role commercial banks play in the economy. It mentions that without commercial banks, the economy would collapse, affecting credit cards, debit cards, automatic payments, and investment capital for companies.
In summary, commercial banks are integral to the financial system, providing diverse services while navigating a complex regulatory landscape. Their evolution and functions impact both individuals and the broader economy.